Drugs in urdu

History[ edit ] Hashish has been used across the Indian subcontinent for medicinal and religious purposes for thousands of years, [1] and was sold in government shops along with opium during the times of the British India and in independent India until the s marijuana and bhang is still being sold in parts of Rajasthan, India. Despite this long history, charas was made illegal in India under pressure from the United States in the s and severe sentences were introduced for cultivation and trafficking of charas. Even the mere possession had a mandatory ten-year prison sentence.

Drugs in urdu

Factors Related to Drugs: Lipid water solubility Lipid water solubility coefficient is the ratio of dissolution of drug in lipid as compared to water.

Greater the lipid water solubility coefficient, more is the lipid solubility of the drug and greater is the absorption. Less the coefficient, less is the lipid solubility and less is the absorption. Water film exists on the membranes so part of the drugs must be water soluble to cross this water film Drugs with benzene ring, hydrocarbon chain, steroid nucleus and halogen groups in their structures are lipid soluble.

Molecular size Smaller the molecular size of the drugrapid is the absorption. There exist different processes involved in absorption for different molecular sizes. Those with a large molecular size undergo endocytosis or facilitated diffusion, while those with smaller molecular sizes utilize aqueous diffusion or lipid channels.

Particle size Particle may be composed either of a single molecule or more than hundred Drugs in urdu.

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Larger is the particle size, slower will be the diffusion and absorption and vice versa. Degree of Ionization Different drugs are either acidic or basic and are present in ionized or unionized form, which is given by their pKa values.

In the body, the ratio of the ionized and unionized forms depend on the pH of the medium. Acidic drugs are unionized in the acidic medium and basic drugs are unionized in the basic medium. Acidic drugs are better absorbed from the acidic compartment. Physical Forms Drugs may exist as solids, liquids or gases.

Gases are rapidly absorbed than the liquids, while the liquids are rapidly absorbed than the solids.

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Thus the drugs in syrup or suspension form are rapidly absorbed than the tablets or capsules. Volatile gases used in general anesthesia are quickly absorbed through the pulmonary route. Chemical Nature Chemical nature is responsible for the selection of the route of administration of drug.

Drugs that cannot be absorbed through the intestines are given by the parenteral route. Examples include heparin which is large molecular weight, and cannot be given orally.

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Simililarly, benzyl penicillin is degraded in the GIT, so is given parenterally. Salt forms of drugs are better absorbed than the organic compounds when given orally. The organic compounds are given by routes other than the oral or enteral route. Drugs in inorganic form are better absorbed than organic forms e.

Neostigmine is also a quaternary ammonium compound. Dosage Forms Dosage forms affect the rate and extent of absorption.

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A drug can be given in the form of tablets, capsules or transdermal packets. Injections may be aqueous or oily. This changes the rate of absorption.

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Examples include nitroglycerin which when given by sublingual route, disintegrates rapidly but stays for a shorter duration. When it is given orallyit disintegrates slowly and stays for longer duration.

When given by transdermal route, the drug can cover an even longer duration. Disintegration is the breaking up of the dosage form into smaller particles. When rapid is the disintegration, rapid will be the absorption. After disintegration, the drug dissolves in the gastric juices, which is called dissolution.

It is only then that the drug can be absorbed. When these two processes occur rapidly, the rate of absorption increases. Formulation When the drugs are formed, apart from the active form some inert substances are included.The factors affecting absorption of drugs are related both to the drugs and to the body..

Factors Related to Drugs: 1. Lipid water solubility. Lipid water solubility coefficient is the ratio of dissolution of drug in lipid as compared to water.

Greater the lipid water solubility coefficient, more is the lipid solubility of the drug and greater is the absorption. Read the latest medical research on liver disease. What diets are best? Learn to recognize the symptoms of liver disease, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

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Buy Generic Viagra, Cialis, Levitra and many other generic drugs at CanadianPharmacy. Lowest prices for Generic and Brand drugs. Bonus 10 free pills, discounts and FREE SHIPPING. Cheapest drugs online - . Blue Cross Community MMAI (Medicare-Medicaid Plan)SM FORMULARY (List of Covered Drugs) PLEASE READ: THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION ABOUT THE DRUGS WE COVER IN THIS PLAN Effective January Drug, alcohol and other substance misuse is everyone's concern.

Drugs in urdu

It damages health, causes absenteeism and reduced productivity. Drugs at work.

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