Natural Law You are here: Something is Wrong with the World Chapter Two: Where Do Conservatives Come From? Where Do Liberals Come From?
It was not used in the eighteenth century when English speakers commonly referred to a process of becoming "enlightened. They were received by a young post-graduate student Samuel Johnsonof Guilford, Connecticut, who studied them.
He found that they contradicted all his hard-learned Puritan learning. He wrote that, "All this was like a flood of day to his low state of mind",  and that "he found himself like one at once emerging out of the glimmer of twilight into the full sunshine of open day". Two years later in as a Yale Tutor, Johnson introduced a new curriculum into Yale using the donated Dummer books.
Enlightenment ideas were introduced to the colonists and diffused through Puritan educational and religious networks especially through Yale College in According to the founding fathers, the United States should be a country where peoples of all faiths could live in peace and mutual benefit.
James Madison summed up this ideal in saying, "Conscience is the most sacred of all property. The passage of the new Connecticut Constitution on October 5,overturned the year-old "Standing Order" and The Connecticut Charter ofwhose provisions dated back to the founding of the state in and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ; it has been proposed as a date for American literature pursuit of happiness triumph if not the end of the American Enlightenment: Intellectual currents[ American literature pursuit of happiness ] Between and a great intellectual change took place that changed the British Colonies of America from a distant backwater into a leader in the fields of moral philosophy, educational reform, religious revival, industrial technology, science, and, most notably, political philosophy.
It saw a consensus on a "pursuit of happiness" based political philosophy. Architecture[ edit ] Afterthe Federal-style of American Architecture began to diverge from the Georgian style and became a uniquely American genre; inthe American architect Ithiel Town designed and in — built the first Gothic Style church in North America, Trinity Church on the Green in New Haven, predating the English Gothic revival by a decade.
In the fields of literature, poetry, music, and drama some nascent artistic attempts were made, particularly in pre-war Philadelphia, but American non-popular culture in these fields was largely imitative of British culture for most of the period and is generally considered not very distinguished.
Republicanism[ edit ] Politically, the age is distinguished by an emphasis upon economic libertyrepublicanism and religious toleranceas clearly expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence.
Attempts to reconcile science and religion resulted in a rejection of prophecy, miracle, and revealed religion, resulting in an inclination toward deism among some major political leaders of the age.
American republicanism emphasized consent of the governed, riddance of the aristocracy, and fear of corruption. It represented the convergence of classical republicanism and English republicanism of 17th century Commonwealthmen and 18th century English Country Whigs.
Pocock explained the intellectual sources in America: European sources[ edit ] Sources of the American Enlightenment are many and vary according to time and place.
As a result of an extensive book trade with Great Britain, the colonies were well acquainted with European literature almost contemporaneously.
A particularly important English legal writer was Sir William Blackstonewhose Commentaries on the Laws of England served as a major influence on the American Founders and is a key source in the development Anglo-American common law.
Both informed early American ideas of government and were major influences on the Constitution. A German influence includes Samuel Pufendorfwhose writings were also commonly cited by American writers.
Before the consensus was that liberalismespecially that of John Lockewas paramount; republicanism was largely ignored. Pocock who argued in The Machiavellian Moment that, at least in the early eighteenth-century, republican ideas were just as important as liberal ones.
Cornell University Professor Isaac Kramnick, on the other hand, argues that Americans have always been highly individualistic and therefore Lockean. They especially followed the development of republican ideas in England. The Whig canon and the neo-Harringtonians, John MiltonJames Harrington and SidneyTrenchardGordon and Bolingbroketogether with the Greek, Roman, and Renaissance masters of the tradition as far as Montesquieuformed the authoritative literature of this culture; and its values and concepts were those with which we have grown familiar: A neoclassical politics provided both the ethos of the elites and the rhetoric of the upwardly mobile, and accounts for the singular cultural and intellectual homogeneity of the Founding Fathers and their generation.
By abandoning English constitutionalism and creating a new republic based on the rights of the individual, the North Americans introduced a new force in the world.
Ideas spread most rapidly when they have found adequate concrete expression. Up to this point, the conviction had prevailed in Europe that monarchy best served the interests of the nation. Now the idea spread that the nation should govern itself.
But only after a state had actually been formed on the basis of the theory of representation did the full significance of this idea become clear. All later revolutionary movements have this same goal This was the complete reversal of a principle. Until then, a king who ruled by the grace of God had been the center around which everything turned.
Now the idea emerged that power should come from below These two principles are like two opposite poles, and it is the conflict between them that determines the course of the modern world. In Europe the conflict between them had not yet taken on concrete form; with the French Revolution it did.
That all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
The text of the second section of the Declaration of Independence reads: Deism[ edit ] Both the Moderate Enlightenment and a Radical or Revolutionary Enlightenment were reactions against the authoritarianismirrationality, and obscurantism of the established churches.
Philosophers such as Voltaire depicted organized Religion as hostile to the development of reason and the progress of science and incapable of verification.
An alternative religion was deismthe philosophical belief in a deity based on reason, rather than religious revelation or dogma.Introduction to Literature: Pursuit of Happiness This course introduces students to fiction, poetry, and drama, and emphasizes active and responsive.
The Happiness of Pursuit Americans are free to pursue happiness, but there's no guarantee we'll achieve it. The secret is knowing how — and where — to look. Introduction to Literature: Pursuit of Happiness This course introduces students to fiction, poetry, and drama, and emphasizes active and responsive The American Heritage College Dictionary (or equivalent desk dictionary) Incorporating the theme of “the pursuit of happiness” is particularly easy in this course.
Every. Introduction. The era widely known as Reconstruction runs from , the official end of the Civil War, to , when Southern Democrats conceded the United States Presidency to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in exchange for his pulling federal troops from Southern territories. The pursuit of happiness is an individuals quest to be happy.
An individual's idea of happiness is always different from another individual's definition. For most, it's a dream. The American Dream "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness " are the famous words every American hears throughout their lifetime. These words are part of America's history through the Declaration of Independence, America is the only country where the "pursuit of happiness" is .